Endurance Specific Concepts


stride length x stride frequency

These are the product of

  • Amount of force (physical conditioning + technique)
  • direction of force (technique)
  • timeframe for application of force (physical conditioning + technique)

Endurance – maintain speed for a long time

Physiology pdf

Training will increase stroke volume of heart, shows in reduced resting heart rate and increase VO2Max.

VO2Max is maximal rate of taking in O2 and delivering it to muscles.  It is unclear what types of training improve VO2Max.  Perhaps slow endurance + near maximal heart rate intervals?
World Class Males VO2Max above 70, females 60.  But running economy also has a big effect.


  • Phosphogen system  – phosphocreatine system – few seconds of energy
  • Glucose/glycogen – breaks down to produce lactic acid then ATP

Lactic Acid

  • key energy pathway for middle distance e.g. 400/800m
  • lactate doesn’t cause fatigue, associate Hydrogen ions might

Lactate threshold

  • around 70% of max heart rate
  • talk test – if below LT then it is possible to talk easily

Lactate Turn Point

  • above this point is the “Tempo Zone”

Types of training – benefits

  • Long run – exercises aerobic system and improves economy, e.g. cardiovascular, peripheral capilliary improvements, speeds up access to fat, movement efficiency
  • Interval sessions – still cadiovascular improvements, can run at higher speed – so higher anaerobic effect
  • Speed sessions – improves neurological aspects to improve biomechanics for running at high speed
  • Tempo run – practice running at sustained pressure for a continuous period of time

Muscle soreness

  • part of adaptation process
  • worse with eccentric training, e.g. downhill or gym work
  • take care when training if sore, may reduce proprioception
  • no evidence that lactate is the cause of muscle soreness, more likely to be due to microscopic damage, e.g. tears, swelling

Sessions per week/month

  • It depends on all factors
  • 2 x hard sessions per week, or 1 session + tempo run per week

Strength training

  • Right level of strength for event (what level is right for orienteering?)
  • Plyometrics and gym work can be useful

Training Adaptations

Are energy systems in 800/1500 races different for men and women?  Sometimes women may be less responsive to generating the anaerobic energy system.  May need to differentiate training by gender.

Should a 12 year old run for 90 minutes?  Is 30 minutes long enough to generate training adaptation?  Concern over overloading bones/tendons etc as they grow.

How can you tell when an athlete develops the anaerobic energy system?  Look at how they run reps.  There when they go off faster but can’t maintain this.

Speed pre-puberty!

Why time runs – to assess progress; need session to be run at a specific pace (can they achieve that?); stop athlete running for too long or too short.

Fell shoes – don’t think the example is still in circulation.

Safety – when training on the roads always have enough adults around.  Reflective clothing is important.  Head torches.

Safety – off road – beware of trip hazards!  If it is cold it may be icy and hard.  Snow covers up rough ground.  Nothing about navigation.

Steeplechase barriers are solid and don’t fall over.  Don’t put your foot on an ordinary hurdle.  Train with people around when hurdling barriers.  Seem to imply that athletes will try to clear the water jump?

Tactics – try different tactics; try to race against different people.  Try to run at an even pace.


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